Partners
Université Paris Sud/CNRS : Centre de Nanosciences et de Nanotechnologies (C2N)
Politecnico Di Milano / L-Ness

Resume
Mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectroscopy is a nearly universal way to identify chemical and biological substances, as most of the molecules have their vibrational and rotational resonances in the mid-IR wavelength range. The development of mid-IR photonic circuits on silicon chips has recently gained a lot of attention, as it could offer high performance, low cost, compact, low weight and power consumption photonic circuits. Among the different materials available in silicon photonics, germanium (Ge) and silicon-germanium (SiGe) alloys with a high Ge concentration are particularly interesting because of the wide transparency window of Ge extending up to 15 µm. In this context, the INsPIRE project aimed at demonstrating breakthrough in the field of mid IR photonic integrated circuits based on Ge-rich SiGe materials. The main achievements obtained during the project are described below:

(i) It has been demonstrated that the Ge-rich graded SiGe platform relying on a graded SiGe layer epitaxially grown on Si substrate, presents definitive advantage in terms of mid-IR photonics platform, as a single waveguide can be used with low propagation losses in an unprecedent wavelength range, up to 11 μm, for both TE and TM polarization.

(ii) A whole set of devices has been demonstrated based on this waveguide platform: Optical spectrometers working in the a wide mid-infrared spectral range have been developed using a classical Fourier-transform approach, leading to the first on-chip spectrometer working from 5 to 8.5 µm wavelength. A new spectrometer has then been proposed to overcome the trade-off between bandwidth and resolution of classical approaches. To this end, the spatial heterodyning of Mach Zehnder interferometers (MZI) arrays is combined with optical path tuning by thermooptic effect. A mid-infrared SiGe spectrometer was then demonstrated with a resolution better than 15 cm-1 and a bandwidth of 603 cm-1 near 7.7 m wavelength with a 10 MZI array. Finally resonators have been investigated in different configurations, based on racetrack devices and Bragg grating based Fabry-Perot cavities corresponding to the first integrated resonators reaching 8 µm wavelength.

(iii) Active devices is among the main challenges to complete a mid-IR photonics platform. As a preliminary step towards the implementation of a high-performance integrated modulator in the mid-IR regime, all-optical modulation has been demonstrated. This first experimental demonstration of optical modulation in a mid-IR PIC, carried out in long wave infrared (LWIR) regime, confirms theoretical free-carrier electro-absorption predictions and paves the way for efficient electrically driven optical modulators.

(iv) The last objective of the project was to make key advances in the development of chip scale wideband sources based on non-linear (NL) effects in Ge-rich SiGe materials. The first 3rd order NL experimental characterization of Ge-rich Si1-xGex waveguides has thus been performed, with Ge concentrations x ranging from 0.7 to 0.9. The characterization performed using a bi-directional top hat D-Scan method, at 1580 nm has been compared with theoretical models and used to model NL properties of Ge-rich SiGe materials in the mid-IR. A strong increase of the non-linear refractive index when the Ge concentration is larger than 80% is thus obtained, confirming the key advantages of using Ge-rich SiGe materials for efficient non-linear devices.


The team:  

INsPIRE team - Sep. 2019 From left to right : M. Montesinos-Ballester, Qiankun Liu , Giovanni Isella, Jacopo Frigerio, Andrea Ballabio, Delphine Marris-Morini

 

 

INsPIRE team - Oct. 2016 From left to right : Daniel Chrastina, Jacopo Frigerio, Andrea Ballabio, Joan Manel Ramirez, Vladyslav Vakarin, Papichaya Chaisakul, Delphine Marris-Morini, Giovanni Isella, and seated in front : Qiankun Liu 


Publications

Articles in journals

  • M. Montesinos-Ballester, V. Vakarin, Q. Liu, X. Le Roux, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, A. Barzaghi, C. Alonso-Ramos, L. Vivien, G. Isella, D. Marris-Morini, Ge-rich graded SiGe waveguides and interferometers from 5 to 11 μm wavelength range, Optics Express, 28 (9), 12771 (2020. https://doi.org/10.1364/OE.391464
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  • M. Montesinos-Ballester, V. Vakarin, J M Ramirez, Q. Liu, C. Alonso-Ramos, X. Le Roux, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, A. Barzaghi, L. Deniel, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, D. Marris-Morini, Optical modulation in Ge-rich SiGe waveguides in the mid-infrared wavelength range up to 11 μm, Communications Materials, 1, 6 (2020), https://doi.org/10.1038/s43246-019-0003-8
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  • M. Montesinos-Ballester, Q. Liu, V. Vakarin, J M. Ramirez, C. Alonso-Ramos, X. Le Roux, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, E. Talamas, L. Vivien, G. Isella, D. Marris-Morini, On-chip Fourier-transform spectrometer based on spatial heterodyning tuned by thermooptic effect, Scientific Reports, 9, 14633 (2019) https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-50947-x
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  • V. Vakarin, W.N. Ye, J.M. Ramirez, Q. Liu, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, G. Isella, L. Vivien, C. Alonso-Ramos, P. Cheben, D. Marris-Morini, Ultra-wideband Ge-rich silicon germanium mid-infrared polarization rotator with mode hybridization flattening, Optics Express 27 (7), 9838 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1364/OE.27.009838
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  • J-M. Ramirez, Q. Liu, V. Vakarin, X. Le Roux, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, C. Alonso Ramos, E. Talamas Simola, L. Vivien, G. Isella, D. Marris-Morini, Broadband integrated racetrack ring resonators for long-wave infrared photonics Optics Letters, 44 (2), 407 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1364/OL.44.000407 https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01983394
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  • Q. Liu, J M. Ramirez, V. Vakarin, X. Le Roux, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, E. Talamas Simola, C. Alonso Ramos, D. Benedikovic, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, D. Marris-Morini, On-chip Bragg grating waveguides and Fabry-Perot resonators for long-wave infrared operation up to 8.4 μm Optics Express 26 (26), 34366 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1364/OE.26.034366
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  • Q. Liu, J.M. Ramirez, V. Vakarin, X. Le Roux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, E. Talamas Simola, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, D. Marris-Morini, Integrated broadband dual-polarization Ge-rich SiGe mid-infrared Fourier-Transform spectrometer, Optics Letters, 43 (20), 5021-5024 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1364/OL.43.005021 https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01891844v1
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  • D. Marris-Morini, V. Vakarin, J-M. Ramirez, Q. Liu, A. Ballabio, J. Frigerio, M. Montesinos, C. Alonso-Ramos, X. Le Roux, S. Serna, D. Benedikovic, D. Chrastina, L. Vivien and G. Isella, Germanium-based integrated photonics from near- to mid-infrared applications Nanophotonics, (2018) invited review paper. https://doi.org/10.1515/nanoph-2018-0113
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  • Vladyslav Vakarin, Joan Manel Ramírez, Jacopo Frigerio, Qiankun Liu, Andrea Ballabio, Xavier Le Roux, Carlos Alonso-Ramos, Giovanni Isella, Pavel Cheben, Winnie N. Ye, Laurent Vivien and Delphine Marris-Morini, Wideband Ge-Rich SiGe Polarization-Insensitive Waveguides for Mid-Infrared Free-Space Communications Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 1154. https://doi.org/10.3390/app8071154
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  • Q. Liu, J. Manel Ramirez, V. Vakarin, X. Le Roux, A. Ballabio, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, C. Alonso Ramos, D. Marris-Morini, Mid-infrared sensing between 5.2 and 6.6 μm wavelengths using Ge-rich SiGe waveguides [Invited], Optical Materials Express, 8 (5), 1305 (2018) https://doi.org/10.1364/OME.8.001305
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  • J.M. Ramirez, Q. Liu, V. Vakarin, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, D. Marris-Morini Graded SiGe waveguides with broadband low loss propagation in the mid infrared Optics Express, 26 (2), 870, (2018) https://doi.org/10.1364/OE.26.000870
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  • S. Serna, V. Vakarin, J.-M. Ramirez, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, L. Vivien, G. Isella, E. Cassan, N. Dubreuil, D. Marris-Morini, Nonlinear Properties of Ge-rich Si1-xGex Materials with Different Ge Concentrations, Scientific reports, 7, 14692 (2017) https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-15266-z
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  • V. Vakarin, J-M. Ramirez, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, Q. Liu, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, G. Isella, D. Marris-Morini, Ultra-wideband Ge-rich silicon germanium integrated Mach–Zehnder interferometer for mid-infrared spectroscopy Optics Letters Vol. 42 n°17, 3482-3485 (2017) https://doi.org/10.1364/OL.42.003482 https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01579360
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  • J.M. Ramirez, V. Vakarin, J. Frigerio, P. Chaisakul, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, A. Ballabio, L. Vivien, G. Isella, D. Marris-Morini, Ge-rich graded-index Si1-xGex waveguides with broadband tight mode confinement and flat anomalous dispersion for nonlinear mid-infrared photonics, Optics Express 25 (6) 6561 (2017) . https://doi.org/10.1364/OE.25.006561
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  • J.M. Ramirez, V. Vakarin, C. Gilles, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, P. Chaisakul, X. Le Roux, C. Alonso-Ramos, G. Maisons, L. Vivien, M. Carras, G. Isella, D. Marris-Morini, Low-loss Ge-rich Si0.2Ge0.8 waveguides for mid-infrared photonics, Optics Letters 42 (1) 105 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1364/OL.42.000105 https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01430021
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  • J. Frigerio, V. Vakarin, P. Chaisakul, A. Ballabio, D. Chrastina, M. Leone, X. Le Roux, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, Electro-Refraction in Standard and Symmetrically Coupled Ge/SiGe Quantum Wells, Nanosci. Nanotechnol. Lett. 9, 1123–1127 (2017) https://doi.org/10.1166/nnl.2017.2443
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  • V. Vakarin, P. Chaisakul, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, J-R. Coudevylle, D. Bouville, D. Perez-Galacho, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, Sharp bends and Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on Ge-rich-SiGe waveguides on SiGe graded buffer Optics Express, 23 (24) 30821-30826 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1364/OE.23.030821
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  • J. Frigerio, V. Vakarin, P. Chaisakul, M. Ferretto, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, L. Vivien, G.Isella and D. Marris-Morini, Giant electro-optic effect in Ge/SiGe coupled quantum wells Scientific reports 5, 15398 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1038/srep15398
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    Invited communications in international conferences

  • D. Marris-Morini, V. Vakarin, Q. Liu, J. M. Ramirez, A. Ballabio, J. Frigerio, X. Le Roux, Samuel Serna, D. Benedikovic, C. Alonso-Ramos, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, "Ge-rich SiGe photonic integrated circuits for mid-IR spectroscopy" SPIE Photonics West, San Francisco, USA, jan-fev 2018. https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01798825
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  • J. Frigerio, J.- M. Ramírez, A. Ballabio, V. Vakarin, P. Chaisakul, C. Gilles, Q. Liu, G. Maisons, X. Le Roux, L. Vivien, M. Carras, G. Isella and D. Marris-Morini, ,“Mid-infrared integrated photonics with Ge-rich SiGe waveguides”, Semicon Nano 2017, Como, Italy, Sep 2017 https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01618785
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  • J-M Ramírez, V. Vakarin, P. Chaisakul, J. Frigerio,A. Ballabio, C. Gilles,D. Chrastina,Q. Liu,G. Maisons,X. Le Roux,L. Vivien,M. Carras, G. Isella,D. Marris-Morini, Ge-rich SiGe waveguides for mid-infrared photonics, SPIE Photonics West, San Francisco, USA, jan-fev 2017. https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01616379v1
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  • D. Marris-Morini, Silicon photonics for high performance optical communications and sensing applications, IONS 2017 (The International OSA Network of Students) 14-17 june 2017, Paris, France.
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  • D. Marris-Morini, V. Vakarin, P. Chaisakul, J. Frigerio, M. Rahman, J. M. Ramírez, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, L. Vivien, G. Isella, High-speed modulators and photodetectors based on Ge/SiGe Quantum Wells, E-MRS Fall Meeting, September 19 to 22, 2016, Warsaw (Poland) https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01388117
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  • D. Marris-Morini, V. Vakarin, P. Chaisakul, J. Frigerio, M. Rahman, J. M. Ramírez, M-S. Rouifed, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, G. Isella, L. Vivien, Silicon Photonics Based on Ge/SiGe Quantum Well Structures, 18th International Conference on transparent Optical Networks (ICTON 2016) https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01388130
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  • D. Marris-Morini, P. Chaisakul, J. Frigerio, M-S. Rouifed, V. Vakarin, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, G. Isella, L. Vivien, Silicon Photonics Based on Ge/SiGe Quantum Well Structures Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (ACP), 19-23 novembre 2015, Hong Kong. https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01322042v1
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  • D. Marris-Morini, V. Vakarin, P. Chaisakul, M-S. Rouifed, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, S. Cecchi, G. Isella, L.Vivien, Ge/SiGe Quantum well optical modulator 25th international conference on Solid State Device and Materials (SSDM), Sapporo, Japan 27-30 september 2015 https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01322037v1
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  • D. Marris-Morini, P. Chaisakul, J. Frigerio, M-S. Rouifed, V. Vakarin, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, G. Isella, L. Vivien, Silicon photonics based on Ge/SiGe quantum well, IEEE Group IV Photonics, august 2015, Vancouver (Canada) https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01322023v1
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    Communications in international conferences

  • Joan Manel Ramírez, Qiankun Liu, Vladyslav Vakarin,Jacopo Frigerio, Andrea Ballabio, Xavier Le Roux, Laurent Vivien, Giovanni Isella, Delphine Marris-Morini A compact Ge-rich graded-index SiGe platform with broadband low-loss propagation in the mid infrared, OSA High-brightness Sources and Light-driven Interactions Congress (Mid-Infrared Coherent Sources MICS Strasbourg, mars 2018)
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  • Qiankun Liu, Joan Manel Ramírez, Vladyslav Vakarin, Jacopo Frigerio, Andrea Ballabio, Xavier Le Roux, Laurent Vivien, Carlos Alonso-Ramos, Giovanni Isella, Delphine Marris-Morini, Mid-IR integrated cavity based on Ge-rich graded SiGe waveguides with lateral Bragg grating, OSA High-brightness Sources and Light-driven Interactions Congress (Mid-Infrared Coherent Sources MICS Strasbourg, mars 2018)
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  • S. Serna, V. Vakarin, J. M. Ramirez, X. Le Roux, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, L. Vivien, G. Isella, E. Cassan, N. Dubreuil, D. Marris-Morini, Third Order Nonlinear Optical Properties of Ge-Rich SiGe Waveguides, IEEE Group IV Photonics, 23-25 august 2017, Berlin (Germany) https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01617226v1
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  • V. Vakarin, J. –M. Ramirez, Q. Liu, X. Le Roux, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, L. Vivien, G. Isella, D. Marris-Morini, Broadband Mid Infrared Photonic Integrated components using a Ge-rich SiGe platform, IEEE Group IV Photonics, 23-25 august 2017, Berlin (Germany) https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01617229v1
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  • S. Serna, V. Vakarin, J.M. Ramirez, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, L.Vivien, G. Isella, E. Cassan, N. Dubreuil, D. Marris-Morini, Nonlinear properties of Ge-rich SiGe waveguides, 2017 CLEO Pacific Rim Conference 31 Jul 2017 - 04 Aug 2017, Singapore https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01617233v1
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  • V. Vakarin; Papichaya Chaisakul; Jacopo Frigerio; Andrea Ballabio; Joan Manel Ramírez; Xavier Le Roux; Jean-René Coudevylle; Laurent Vivien; Giovanni Isella; Delphine Marris-Morini, Polarization insensitive Ge-rich silicon germanium waveguides for optical interconnects on silicon, SPIE optics + Optoelectronics, 24-27 avril 2017 Pragues, Czech Republic, Proc. SPIE 10242; doi: 10.1117/12.2265431 Best student paper https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01617222v1
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  • J.-M. Ramirez, V. Vakarin, J. Frigerio, Q. Liu, A. Ballabio, P. Chaisakul, X. Le Roux, L. Vivien, G. Isella, D. Marris-Morini, Ge-rich graded-index SiGe waveguides as enabling building blocks for broadband mid Infrared integrated photonics, European Conference on Integrated Optics, April 03-05, 2017, Eindhoven, the Netherlands. https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01617217v1
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  • J. M. Ramírez, V. Vakarin, Q. Liu, A. Ballabio, J. Frigerio, P. Chaisakul, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, C. Gilles, G. Maisons, M. Carras, L. Vivien, G. Isella, D. Marris-Morini, Broadband mid infrared Ge-rich SiGe waveguides and Mach-Zehnder interferometric devices: design, fabrication and characterization, E-MRS Fall Meeting, 18-21 september 2017, Warsaw (Poland) https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01617242v1
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  • Q. Liu, J.-M. Ramírez, V. Vakarin, D. Perez-Galacho, C. Alonso-Ramos, D. Benedikovic, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, G. Isella, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, Design of Fabry-Perot grating cavity based on Ge-rich graded SiGe waveguide for Mid-IR, IONS 2017 (The International OSA Network of Students) 14-17 june 2017, Paris https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01617244v1
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  • Q. Liu, J.-M. Ramírez, V. Vakarin, D. Perez-Galacho, C. Alonso-Ramos, D. Benedikovic, L. Vivien, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, G. Isella, Design of Mid-IR integrated Fabry-Perot cavity based on Ge-rich graded SiGe waveguides, Photonics North, 6-8 june 2017 Ottawa (Canada) https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01617247v1
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  • J. M. Ramírez, V. Vakarin, M. Rahman, P. Chaisakul, X. Le Roux, L. Vivien, Daniel Chrastina, Jacopo Frigerio, Giovanni Isella, D. Marris-Morini Broadband single mode SiGe graded waveguides with tight mode confinement for mid-infrared photonics 18th Photonics North Conference, 24-26 May 2016, Québec City (Canada) https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01322082v1
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  • M. Rahman, E. Durán Valdeiglesias, V. Vakarin, J. Frigerio, J. M. Ramírez, D. Chrastina, P. Chaisakul, X. Le Roux, L. Vivien, G. Isella and D. Marris-Morini, Investigation of Ge/SiGe Quantum Well properties by room temperature photoluminescence, E-MRS Spring Meeting, 2-6 May 2016, Lille (France) https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01322078v1
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  • J. Frigerio, V. Vakarin, P. Chaisakul, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, L. Vivien, G. Isella, D. Marris-Morini Electro-absorption and electro-refraction in Ge/SiGe coupled quantum wells SPIE Photonics Europe, 3-7 April 2016, Brussels (Belgium) https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01326155v1
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  • V. Vakarin, P. Chaisakul,J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, J-R. Coudevylle, L.Vivien, G. Isella, D. Marris-Morini Ge-rich silicon germanium on graded buffer as a new platform for optical interconnects on silicon SPIE Photonics Europe, 3-7 April 2016, Brussels (Belgium) Best student conference presentation https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01322121v1
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  • V. Vakarin, P. Chaisakul, J. Frigerio, A. Ballabio, X. Le Roux, J-R. Coudevylle, L. Vivien, G. Isella, and D. Marris-Morini, * Silicon germanium on graded buffer as a new platform for optical interconnects on silicon, SPIE Photonics West, 16–18 February 2016, San Francisco (USA) https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01322066v1
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  • J. Frigerio, V. Vakarin, P. Chaisakul, M. Ferretto, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, X. Le Roux, L. Vivien and D. Marris-Morini, Electro-refractive effect in symmetrically coupled Ge/SiGe quantum wells, IEEE Group IV Photonics, Vancouver Canada, 26-28 aout 2015. Post deadline paper https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01322131v1
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